Herniated disc affects our daily life. The lumbar region, which is located on the sacrum together with the five vertebrae and intervertebral discs in our body, is the most mobile region of the spine after the neck. The joints between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae and the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum bone constitute the majority of the movement in the lower back. The discs between the vertebrae are made up of gelatinous fluid and the outer part consists of fibers consisting of fibrotic bands. Repetitive movements, excessive strain, posture disorders, and physical activities performed in inappropriate positions cause ruptures in the outer part called annulus fibrosis, the rupture starts from the inner fibers of the annulus and extends outwards. As a result, the gelatinous fluid herniates outward and forces the ligaments in that area and puts pressure on the surrounding tissues. As the disease progresses, it compresses the sciatic nerve that goes to the leg, and it is mostly seen in young and middle ages. In advanced ages, it is seen with lumbar calcification.-herniated disk-
What Causes of herniated disc?
Any event that develops in the vertebrae, disc and soft tissues in the waist can cause low back pain.
herniated disk is one of the most important reasons that limit the daily activities of the individual. It is known that approximately 80% of the population all over the world have had at least one attack of low back pain at any time in their lives. herniated disk ranks second after heart diseases among chronic diseases seen in developed societies and ranks fifth among diseases treated surgically. Low back pain is most common in the 20-40s. Low back pain can be divided into two groups as acute and chronic. In acute low back pain, the pain usually decreases within a few days and completely disappears after a few weeks. If the pain lasts more than 3 months, this pain is called chronic low back pain. The complaints of 90% of patients with low back pain resolve spontaneously within the first 4 weeks, but only 5% become chronic. In most low back pain, the cause of the pain is determined by history and clinical examination, nothing can be found in auxiliary studies and radiological examinations.
This type of pain is generally referred to as “mechanical low back pain”.
We can collect the causes of low back pain in 2 big groups.
1-Musculoskeletal system diseases
The majority of low back pain falls into this group. It mostly occurs with minor damage to the muscles, connective tissue or joints. The term “myofascial pain syndrome” is used for the clinical picture caused by excessive stretching and injury of muscles and soft tissues. Other musculoskeletal problems that cause low back pain include bad and faulty body posture, a short leg, smoking because it causes low oxygenation of the spine and cartilage in the waist, and psychosocial factors such as stress.
Diseases in this group are seen proportionally less than musculoskeletal diseases. The most common causes of low back pain in this group are: herniated disc (lumbar disc hernia), wear of disc tissue (degenerative disc disease), slipped back (lumbar spondylolisthesis), narrowing of the spinal canal (lumbar stenosis). Apart from these, there are less common but serious diseases of the spine, such as tumors, infections, trauma, and collapses due to osteoporosis.